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Traffic Engineering, 4/E (Paperback)
Author(s):
Roger P Roess, Elena S Prassas, William R McShane

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Table of Content
Contents
Preface xiii
1 Introduction to Traffic Engineering 1
1.1 Traffic Engineering as a Profession 1
1.1.1 Safety: The Primary Objective 1
1.1.2 Other Objectives 2
1.1.3 Responsibility, Ethics, and Liability in Traffic Engineering 2
1.2 Transportation Systems and Their Function 3
1.2.1 The Nature of Transportation Demand 4
1.2.2 Concepts of Mobility and Accessibility 5
1.2.3 People, Goods, and Vehicles 6
1.2.4 Transportation Modes 6
1.3 Highway Legislation and History in the United States 8
1.3.1 The National Pike and the States’ Rights Issue 8
1.3.2 Key Legislative Milestones 9
1.3.3 The National System of Interstate and Defense Highways 11
1.4 Elements of Traffic Engineering 12
1.5 Modern Problems for the Traffic Engineer 13
1.6 Standard References for the Traffic Engineer 14
1.7 Metric versus U.S. Units 15
1.8 Closing Comments 15
References 15

Part 1 Traffic Components and Characteristics 16
2 Road User and Vehicle Characteristics 17
2.1 Overview of Traffic Stream Components 17
2.1.1 Dealing with Diversity 17
2.1.2 Addressing Diversity through Uniformity 18
2.2 Road Users 18
2.2.1 Visual Characteristics of Drivers 19
2.2.2 Important Visual Deficits 20
2.2.3 Perception-Reaction Time 20
2.2.4 Pedestrian Characteristics 22
2.2.5 Impacts of Drugs and Alcohol on Road Users 24
2.2.6 Impacts of Aging on Road Users 25
2.2.7 Psychological, Personality, and Related Factors 25
2.3 Vehicles 25
2.3.1 Concept of the Design Vehicle 26
2.3.2 Turning Characteristics of Vehicles 27
2.3.3 Braking Characteristics 29
2.3.4 Acceleration Characteristics 30
2.4 Total Stopping Distance and Applications 31
2.4.1 Safe Stopping Sight Distance 31
2.4.2 Decision Sight Distance 32
2.4.3 Other Sight Distance Applications 33
2.4.4 Change (Yellow) and Clearance (All Red) Intervals for a Traffic Signal 33
2.5 Closing Comments 33
References 33
Problems 34

3 Roadways and Their Geometric Characteristics 35
3.1 Highway Functions and Classification 35
3.1.1 Trip Functions 35
3.1.2 Highway Classification 36
3.1.3 Preserving the Function of a Facility 38
3.2 Introduction to Highway Design Elements 39
3.2.1 Horizontal Alignment 39
3.2.2 Vertical Alignment 39
3.2.3 Cross-Sectional Elements 40
3.2.4 Surveying and Stationing 40
3.3 Horizontal Alignment of Highways 40
3.3.1 Quantifying the Severity of Horizontal Curves: Radius and Degree of Curvature 40
3.3.2 Review of Trigonometric Functions 41
3.3.3 Critical Characteristics of Horizontal Curves 41
3.3.4 Superelevation of Horizontal Curves 44
3.3.5 Spiral Transition Curves 47
3.3.6 Sight Distance on Horizontal Curves 51
3.3.7 Compound Horizontal Curves 52
3.3.8 Reverse Horizontal Curves 52
3.4 Vertical Alignment of Highways 53
3.4.1 Grades 53
3.4.2 Geometric Characteristics of Vertical Curves 56
3.4.3 Sight Distance on Vertical Curves 58
3.4.4 Other Minimum Controls on Length of Vertical Curves 59
3.4.5 Some Design Guidelines for Vertical Curves 59
3.5 Cross-Section Elements of Highways 60
3.5.1 Travel Lanes and Pavement 60
3.5.2 Shoulders 61
3.5.3 Side-Slopes for Cuts and Embankments 61
3.5.4 Guardrail 61
3.6 Closing Comments 62
References 63
Problems 64

4 Introduction to Traffic Control Devices 65
4.1 The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices 65
4.1.1 History and Background 65
4.1.2 General Principles of the MUTCD 66
4.1.3 Contents of the MUTCD 67
4.1.4 Legal Aspects of the MUTCD 67
4.1.5 Communicating with the Driver 68
4.2 Traffic Markings 69
4.2.1 Colors and Patterns 69
4.2.2 Longitudinal Markings 69
4.2.3 Transverse Markings 71
4.2.4 Object Markers 73
4.2.5 Delineators 73
4.3 Traffic Signs 74
4.3.1 Regulatory Signs 75
4.3.2 Warning Signs 78
4.3.3 Guide Signs 80
4.4 Traffic Signals 87
4.4.1 Traffic Control Signals 87
4.4.2 Pedestrian Signals 91
4.4.3 Other Traffic Signals 93
4.4.4 Traffic Signal Controllers 93
4.5 Special Types of Control 93
4.6 Summary and Conclusion 94
References 94
Problems 94

5 Traffic Stream Characteristics 95
5.1 Types of Facilities 95
5.2 Traffic Stream Parameters 96
5.2.1 Volume and Rate of Flow 96
5.2.2 Speed and Travel Time 100
5.2.3 Density and Occupancy 101
5.2.4 Spacing and Headway: Microscopic Parameters 102
5.3 Relationships among Flow Rate, Speed, and Density 103
5.4 Closing Comments 105
References 105
Problems 105

6 Introduction to Traffic Flow Theory 107
6.1 Basic Models of Uninterrupted Flow 107
6.1.1 Historical Background 107
6.1.2 Deriving Speed–Flow and Density–Flow Curves from a Speed-Density Curve 108
6.1.3 Determining Capacity from Speed-Flow-Density Relationships 109
6.1.4 Modern Uninterrupted Flow Characteristics 109
6.1.5 Calibrating a Speed-Flow-Density Relationship 111
6.1.6 Curve Fitting 112
6.2 Queueing Theory 112
6.2.1 One Capacity or Two? An Illustration Using Deterministic Queueing 113
6.2.2 A Problem with Deterministic Queueing 114
6.2.3 The Basic Approach to Queueing Analysis: Random Patterns 115
6.3 Shock-Wave Theory and Applications 117
6.3.1 Different Flow-Density Curves 117
6.3.2 Rate of growth 118
6.4 Characteristics of Interrupted Flow 119
6.5 Closing Comments 119
References 120
Problems 120

Part 2 Traffic Studies and Programs 121
7 Statistical Applications in Traffic Engineering 122
7.1 Overview of Probability Functions and Statistics 123
7.1.1 Discrete versus Continuous Functions 123
7.1.2 Randomness and Distributions Describing Randomness 123
7.1.3 Organizing Data 123
7.1.4 Common Statistical Estimators 124
7.2 The Normal Distribution and Its Applications 125
7.2.1 The Standard Normal Distribution 126
7.2.2 Important Characteristics of the Normal Distribution Function 128
7.3 Confidence Bounds 128
7.4 Sample Size Computations 129
7.5 Addition of Random Variables 129
7.5.1 The Central Limit Theorem 130
7.6 The Binomial Distribution Related to the Bernoulli and Normal Distributions 131
7.6.1 Bernoulli and the Binomial Distribution 131
7.6.2 Asking People Questions: Survey Results 133
7.6.3 The Binomial and the Normal Distributions 133
7.7 The Poisson Distribution 133
7.8 Hypothesis Testing 134
7.8.1 Before-and-After Tests with Two Distinct Choices 135
7.8.2 Before-and-After Tests with Generalized Alternative Hypothesis 137
7.8.3 Other Useful Statistical Tests 138
7.9 Summary and Closing Comments 144
References 146
Problems 146

8 Traffic Data Collection and Reduction Methodologies 148
8.1 Applications of Traffic Data 148
8.2 Types of Studies 149
8.3 Data Collection Methodologies 150
8.3.1 Manual Data Collection Techniques 150
8.3.2 Portable Traffic Data Equipment/Semiautomated Studies 155
8.3.3 Permanent Detectors 156
8.4 Data Reduction 159
8.5 Cell Phones 159
8.6 Aerial Photography and Digitizing Technology 159
8.7 Interview Studies 162
8.7.1 Comprehensive Home Interview Studies 162
8.7.2 Roadside Interview Studies 162
8.7.3 Destination-Based Interview Studies 162
8.7.4 Statistical Issues 163
8.8 Concluding Comments 163
References 163
Problems 163

9 Volume Studies and Characteristics 165
9.1 Critical Parameters 165
9.2 Volume, Demand, and Capacity 166
9.3 Volume Characteristics 169
9.3.1 Hourly Traffic Variation Patterns: The Phenomenon of the Peak Hour 169
9.3.2 Subhourly Variation Patterns: Flow Rates Versus Volumes 172
9.3.3 Daily Variation Patterns 172
9.3.4 Monthly or Seasonal Variation Patterns 172
9.3.5 Some Final Thoughts on Volume Variation Patterns 172
9.4 Intersection Volume Studies 174
9.4.1 Arrival Versus Departure Volumes: A Key Issue for Intersection Studies 174
9.4.2 Special Considerations for Signalized Intersections 176
9.4.3 Presentation of Intersection Volume Data 176
9.5 Limited Network Volume Studies 176
9.5.1 Control Counts 178
9.5.2 Coverage Counts 179
9.5.3 An Illustrative Study 179
9.6 Statewide Counting Programs 184
9.6.1 Calibrating Daily Variation Factors 185
9.6.2 Calibrating Monthly Variation Factors 185
9.6.3 Grouping Data f

Product Details 
ISBN-13 : 978-0132076524
ISBN-10 : 0131424718
Publisher : Pearson Education
Publication Year : 2010
Edition No : 4
Paperback : 744 pages
Shipping Weight : 1.630 Kg
Dimensions: 10.1 x 7.8 x 1.4 inches
Print Origin : United States
Edition Type : International Student Edition(ISE)
Language : English